Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) has been developed by the Centre for Child and Family Studies at Leiden University, by Femmie Juffer, Marian Bakermans-Kranenburg, and Marinus van IJzendoorn, who are professors at the Centre for Child and Family Studies. The current VIPP-SD intervention was finalized in 2008 and training courses for professionals have been provided ever since.
The method is based on attachment theory developed by John Bowlby (1969) and Mary Ainsworth (1974). In addition, principles from ‘coercion’ theory of Gerald Patterson (1982) are incorporated into the method. VIPP-SD is an ‘evidence-based’ intervention: Its’ effectiveness has been demonstrated through 12 ‘Randomized Controlled Trials’ in different countries. Currently, the VIPP-SD is used in more than 15 countries.
VIPP-SD is a preventive intervention aimed at increasing sensitivity and improving adequate discipline strategies of caregivers in order to encourage positive interaction between caregiver and child, and to prevent or reduce behavior problems in children aged 1 to 6 years. To reach this goal, the intervenor works on:
- increasing the observational skills of caregivers
- increasing caregivers’ knowledge about the upbringing and development of young children
- increasing the capacity of caregivers to empathize with their children
- making caregiving behavior more effective by using sensitive responsiveness and sensitive discipline.
The target group consists of families with one or more children aged 1 to 6 years who are at (an increased) risk of behavioral problems like aggression, oppositional behavior and overactive behavior. There is also a VIPP-SD version for foster parents, for adoptive parents and for professional caregivers in child care.
The VIPP-SD program is carried out at the family’s home and consists of 7 visits (sessions) of approximately 2 hours each (including an introduction visit during which the first video recordings will be made). The intervention works with one parent and one child in their home environment. Each visit starts with a recording session, after which the recordings of the previous visit are viewed and discussed. Basic principles of the intervention are creating a positive atmosphere, recognizing the caregiver as an expert of his or her own child (‘empowerment’), and emphasizing and reinforcing positive interactions between caregiver and child.
Sensitive parenting of the caregiver (positive parenting) is the main focus of the intervention, combined with setting boundaries and regulating unruly or disobedient behavior of the child. As soon as young children are introduced to rules, and start to learn to obey those rules, it can be difficult for parents to remain sensitive when their children try to bend or break those rules. VIPP-SD aims at enhancing parental sensitivity in interaction with their children, as well as during times when children have to learn to get acquainted with rules and limits (sensitive discipline).